Ibabe, J.M.R. – Development, Homologation and Dissemination for Extending Nb Application in Steel Processing, Flats and Long Products, D8 – Final Report , Internal report of CEIT, 2018.
Grain refinement in as rolled flat product by using 0.035%Nb. C-Mn (left) and C-Mn-0.035%Nb (right).
Even with niobium additions below 0.035%, these benefits can be demonstrated in multigrade steels, a major contributor to keeping costs competitive.
Therefore niobium microalloying is fundamental in the development of multigrade steels enabling a much more competitive supply chain for structural steels.