Such steels are not classed as high strength, and being commodity grades are highly sensitive to the cost of production, namely; raw materials of iron ore and ferroalloys, energy, scrap metal and emissions output. With respect to ferro-alloys, these steels rely on increasing additions of manganese (Mn) to satisfy the minimum strength requirements, especially as it approaches 355 MPa and/or the section increases in size (i.e. greater kg/m). Furthermore, due to upper limits on Mn content, the use of vanadium (V) microalloying is often made to reach the desired product specific strengths.
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